The significant increase in embryonic development observed at the cell stage with the cyanocobalamin supplemented spermatozoa was not observed at the blastocyst stage of development.This lack of improvement to embryonic development success is not surprising because the antioxidant was supplemented to the spermatozoa, independent of the oocyte and zygote.The supplementation of antioxidants to the media aims to establish a stressfree environment and cyanocobalamin was supplemented only to the spermatozoa, which were improved.Excessive levels of ROS also impair normal spermatozoa membrane function, which can be alleviated by the addition of antioxidants to the environment.The use of antioxidants to reduce oxidative stress is not a new treatment and many vitamins act as antioxidants to protect cell membranes against ROS. It is not surprising that our results indicated that supplementation of another antioxidant, cyanocobalamin, increased the thawed spermatozoa membrane integrity versus no supplementation of antioxidants.Our findings are similar to those found previously in humans. These results, together with the improvement of postthawing motility described above, suggest an opportunity where antioxidants can play a crucial role in reducing the oxidative stress associated with semen thawing.Swine is an attractive animal model for research, and requires a large and steady supply of viable, highquality, and efficientlyproduced pig embryos.However, despite extensive research, polyspermic penetration continues to plague the in vitro system, creating a <a href="http://www.targetmol.com/compound/Rasagiline-Mesylate">buy
Rasagiline Mesylate</a> critical need to develop methods for blocking polyspermic penetration during IVF.In our results, supplementation of cyanocobalamin improved frozenthawed spermatozoa characteristics but did not appear to influence embryonic development.Further investigation to provide more evidence as to how cyanocobalamin is acting in the thawing media is necessary to fully understand the mechanisms of oxidative stress.To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide information on the effects of cyanocobalamin supplementation to the thawing media of frozen boar semen.m cyanocobalamin during thawing had beneficial effects on forward progressive motility, membrane viability, and early embryonic development.It is possible that the beneficial effects observed were due to the reduction of oxidative stress in the environment during thawing.Theriogenology. Whitaker BD, Carle B, Mukai T, Simpson A, Vu L, Knight JW.Anim Reprod. NacetylLcysteine supplementation improves boar spe rmatozoa characteristics and subsequent fertilization and embryonic development.Anim. Reprod, v, n, p, Apr.Jun. Blood samples were collected before and, and days after cobalamin injection.The concentrations of plasma aminothiols and serum methylmalonic acid were measured with highperformance liquid chromatography and gas chromatographymass spectrometry, respectively, and hematological parameters were determined with a hematological analyzer.Mean cell volume was also significantly decreased first after days of therapy.Hcy is either remethylated to methionine or metabolized to the aminothiol cysteine. The remethylation reaction takes place in the cytosol and is catalyzed by the enzyme methionine synthase. As a result, MMA concentration increases in the serum.In vitamin B deficient patients, MTHF cannot be converted into THF, therefore the concentration of THF decreases and the concentration of MTHF increases.Since MTHF cannot be accumulated in the cells, it is released into blood serum.An intracellular deficiency in THF results in imparied DNA synthesis in the patients, and particularly tissue with a rapid cell turnover such as the bonemarrow is vulnerable to THF deficiency.