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What diverse populist movements share is their antiestablishment attitude, claiming their right to speak on behalf of the people against elites, their opposition to the liberal <a href="http://www.targetmol.com/compound/Pamabrom">sell Pamabrom</a> market economy and against globalisation as a set of institutions and processes that allegedly destroy labour markets, and nally a penchant for authoritarian governance.It may appear surprising to examine relations between populism and international trade, since the liberalisation of trade and protectionism are not the only two inuences in labour markets.The   position of employees is the outcome of serious supply shocks, technological change, and increasing competition, alongside the pursuit of higher efciency and the race to the bottom in labour standards.All these result in the mobility of employees between M.Rewizorski labour markets to a much larger extent than even imports of goods, services and the inow of foreign labour.This has been noted by many scholars who have focused on the issues of falling employment and the salaries of mediumqualied employees caused by labour outsourcing. Having examined statistics from the late nineteenth century, they found that the majority of technological changes which had occurred in manufacturing processes since the nineteenth century were related to the special purpose, sequentially implemented machinery.The development of machines were special purpose because they were designed to accomplish specic production tasks that had previously been performed by artisans.The second feature, being sequentially implemented, meant that successive manufacturing tasks were performed by one machine after another, each performing strictly dened tasks in an orderly process, or sequence.Over time, sequentially implemented special purpose machines became much cheaper than skilled labour.As a result, manufacturing process became much more capital intensive, which gradually replaced the labour factor. To summarise, since the s, a majority of studies that address the relationship between automation and globalisation emphasise the inuence that especially the former has had on falling employment in industry.Since the global nancial crash, the interrelations between the outcomes of economic globalisation and the frequently dramatic transformations in national labour markets have been increasingly stressed.This is the key issue of this part of the chapternamely, what makes international trade such a sensitive and important political matter, and why populists have made free trade the main reason for political opposition to globalisation.This quest should therefore be extended to include matters brought to public debate by scholars representing the social sciences, in particular by social psychologists, political scientists and sociologists.Being a byproduct of globalisation, demand populism is driven by insecurity caused by increasing precarisation, dissatisfaction, the delegitimisation of political institutions and growing concerns about fair play in the market.With regard to the abovequoted denition of populism, its demandrelated aspect is used by the leaders of social movements who set vague objectives which are detached from the instruments and strategies of their implementation.The fact that political decision makers fail to address accusations thrown at them by populist movements is in turn important for supply populism, which aims to create narratives whereby discontented people concentrate around key issues, concerns and anxieties.These narratives are presented as stemming from disregarded needs, and neglected demand for benets that result, for instance, from the global trade system.

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