Some nutritional yeast products also contain vitamin B.Anaphylactic shock and death have been reported after parenteral vitamin B administration.Premature neonates are particularly at risk because their kidneys are immature, and they require large amounts of calcium and phosphate solutions, which contain aluminum.Research indicates that patients with impaired kidney function, including premature neonates, who receive parenteral levels of aluminum at greater than to mcgkgday, accumulate aluminum at levels associated with central nervous system and bone toxicity.Tissue loading may occur at even lower rates of administration.Doses of cyanocobalamin exceeding mcg daily may produce haematologic response in patients with folate deficiency.Indiscriminate administration may mask the true diagnosis.Long term studies in animals to evaluate carcinogenic potential have not been done.There is no evidence from longterm use in patients with pernicious anemia that cyanocobalamin is carcinogenic.Pernicious anemia is associated with an increased incidence of carcinoma of the stomach, but this is believed to be related to the underlying pathology and not to treatment with cyanocobalamin.It may be possible to treat the underlying disease by surgical correction of anatomic lesions leading to small bowel bacterial overgrowth, expulsion of fish tapeworm, discontinuation of drugs leading to vitamin malabsorption, use of a glutenfree diet in nontropical sprue, or administration of antibiotics in tropical sprue.Such measures remove the need for longterm administration of cyanocobalamin.Neurological changes, such as numbness and tingling in the hands and feet, can also occur. Additional symptoms of vitamin B deficiency include difficulty maintaining balance, depression, confusion, dementia, poor memory, and soreness of the mouth or tongue. The neurological symptoms of vitamin B deficiency can occur without anemia, so early diagnosis and intervention is important to avoid irreversible damage. During infancy, signs of a vitamin B deficiency include failure to thrive, movement disorders, developmental delays, and megaloblastic anemia. Many of these symptoms are general and can result from a <a href="http://www.targetmol.com/compound/Sodium-Nitroprusside"></a>
variety of other medical conditions.Typically, vitamin B deficiency is treated with vitamin B injections, since this method bypasses potential barriers to absorption.However, high doses of oral vitamin B may also be effective.The authors of a review of randomized controlled trials comparing oral with intramuscular vitamin B concluded that, mcg of oral vitamin B daily, followed by a decreased daily dose of, mcg and then, mcg weekly and finally, monthly might be as effective as intramuscular administration. Overall, an individual patients ability to absorb vitamin B is the most important factor in determining whether vitamin B should be administered orally or via injection. Large amounts of folic acid can mask the damaging effects of vitamin B deficiency by correcting the megaloblastic anemia caused by vitamin B deficiency. Moreover, preliminary evidence suggests that high serum folate levels might not only mask vitamin B deficiency, but could also exacerbate the anemia and worsen the cognitive symptoms associated with vitamin B deficiency. Permanent nerve damage can occur if vitamin B deficiency is not treated.Benzyl alcohol is a colourless liquid with a mild pleasant aromatic odor.It is a useful solvent due to its polarity, low toxicity, and low vapor pressure.Benzyl alcohol is partially soluble in water and completely miscible in alcohols and diethyl ether.