Skin cancer is mainly associated with the epidermal layer and its cell types.Overexposure to solar UV radiation has a variety of adverse effects on human health, including basal and squamous cell carcinomas. In recent years, there has been great interest in the use of dietary supplements that are derived from naturally occurring botanicals for the photoprotection of the skin, including protection from skin cancers.Dietary botanicals, which possess antiinflammatory, immunomodulatory and antioxidant properties, are among the most promising groups of compounds that can be exploited as ideal chemopreventive agents for skin cancer. Among the agents that have been identified as having potential chemopreventive activities are retinoids and silymarin. The basic steps of manufacturing the various forms of teas are similar, except in the development of their aroma and in the fermentation process, which is dependent on the oxidation <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19485832">Targetmol's
Doxycycline hyclate</a> states of catechins present in tea leaves.Of these major polyphenols, EGCG has been shown to be the major and most effective chemopreventive agent and has been extensively studied in several disease models.It is noteworthy to mention that, during the manufacturing process of black tea, catechin derivatives are oxidized, polymerized and converted into a less welldefined group of compounds known as thearubigens. This indicates that the skin has the ability to consume its nutrition through the topical application of nutrients.Therefore, it is important to mention and understand that nutrition for the skin can be provided through both oral and topical administration.Many of the adverse effects of solar UV radiation on human health, including exacerbation of infectious diseases, premature aging of the skin and induction of skin cancer, are mediated, at least in part, by the ability of UV radiation to induce immune suppression. Similar effects were also noted when water extracts of green tea were given to mice as the sole source of drinking water.There are studies defining the role of the immunoregulatory cytokine, IL, in the induction and elicitation of CHS.Langerhans cells, which are critical antigenpresenting cells in the induction phase of CHS, have been described as an additional source of IL production.IL possesses immunosuppressive activity and inhibits antigen presentation in in vitro and in vivo systems.The oral administration of green tea as a sole source of drinking water resulted in a decreased number of papillomas induced by the chronic exposure of mice to UVB radiation.In this formulation, the topical treatment of SKH hairless mice with EGCG resulted in exceptionally high protection from photocarcinogenesis.Protection from photocarcinogenesis was determ ined by tumorinc idence and tumor growth, in terms of total tumor volume per group. These results indicated that the use of EGCG in topical formulation might increase penetration or absorption capacity inside the skin layers and that the presence of a higher concentration may be responsible for higher photoprotection.This information also suggests that nutrient supply to the skin through topical treatment may be better than oral administration.The formation of sunburn cells after UVB irradiation is primarily a consequence of DNA damage. Sunburn cells are keratinocytes that undergo apoptosis after they have received a physiologic UVB dose that has severely and irreversibly damaged their DNA or other chromophores.